As a science-based organization Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative conducts, commissions, shares or analyzes the studies to guide our decisions and how to tackle key issues like climate change or the loss of biodiversity and habitat.

Not only does this work guide our efforts, it provides resources to support our partners’ work and helps make the case for policy changes.  

Review some of the white papers, scientific references relevant to our work, journal articles, reports and other research we’ve conducted or supported, below. Last updated Nov. 13, 2020.  

Y2Y Bibliography 

A complete bibliography of publications containing references to Y2Y. Last updated September 2020. 

Y2Y Journal Articles 

These articles include those (co-)authored by Y2Y staff.

Aycrigg, J.L., et al. (2016) Completing the System: Opportunities and Challenges for a National Habitat Conservation System. Bioscience. 66(9): 774-784.   

Costanza, J.K. and Terando, A.J. (2019)  Landscape Connectivity Planning for Adaptation to Future Climate and Land-Use Change. Curr Landscape Ecol Rep (2019) 4: 1. 

Hauer, F.R., et al. (2016) Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. Science Advances. 2(6): 1-13.   

Hilty, J., et al. (2020) Guidelines for conserving connectivity through ecological networks and corridors. IUCN Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series, no. 30.

Johns, D. (2016) Rewilding. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences.  

Locke, H. (2018) The International Movement to Protect Half the World: Origins, Scientific Foundations, and Policy Implications, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. 

Locke, H., et al. (2019) Three Global Conditions for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use: an implementation framework, National Science Review.

Palm, E.C., Fluker, S., Nesbitt, H.K., Jacob, A.L., Hebblewhite, M. The long road to protecting critical habitat for species at risk: The case of southern mountain woodland caribou. Conservation Science and Practice. 2020;e219.

Pearce, J.L. et al. (2008) Prioritizing avian conservation areas for the Yellowstone to Yukon region of North America. Biological Conservation. 141(1): 908-924.  

Thompson, Patrick & Gonzalez, Andrew. (2017). Dispersal governs the reorganization of ecological networks under environmental change. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 1. 0162. 10.1038/s41559-017-0162.  

Other Y2Y reports

These are reports prepared for Y2Y or by Y2Y staff, partner, interns and post-docs.

Alexander, S., and J. Gailus. (2005) A GIS-Based Approach to Restoring Connectivity Across Banff’s Trans-Canada Highway. Technical Report No. 4, Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. April 2005. 36p. [LINK]  

Ament, R., T. Clevenger, N. Darlow, and T. Lee. (2008) At the Crossroads: Highway 3 Transportation Corridor Workshop Summary. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. March 2008. 24p. [LINK

Apps, C. (2013) Assessing Cumulative Impacts to Wide-Ranging Species Across the Peace Break Region of Northeastern British Columbia. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 85p. [Full Report] – [Summary

Blank, M., and T. Clevenger. (2009) Improving the Ecological Function of the Upper Bow. Technical Report No. 7, Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 50p. [LINK

Brodie, J.F. and J. Berger (undated) The Peel River Watershed: Ecological Crossroads and Beringian Hotspot of Arctic and Boreal Biodiversity. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 36p. [LINK]  

Cawley, A., S. Halperin, N. Louchouarn, and M. Paccassi. (2017) Sharing Canada’s Last Frontier: Creating a Conservation Network to Ensure Continued Wildlife Connectivity in the Mackenzie River Basin. Master’s group project for Bren School of Environmental Science and Management. 83p. [LINK

Clevenger, A., C. Apps, T. Lee, and M. Quinn. (2010) Highway 3: Transportation mitigation for wildlife and connectivity in the Crown of the Continent ecosystem. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. May 2010. 52p. [LINK]  

Craighead, F.L. (undated) Wildlife-related Road Impacts in the Yellowstone to Yukon Region. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 15p. [LINK

Dingwall, P.R. and K. Rao (2009) Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park (Canada and USA) Report of the Reactive Monitoring Mission. September 2009. 51p. [LINK

Domenech, E. (2017) From Science to Implementation: Solutions for Addressing Exurban Sprawl in the Northern Rockies. May 2017. 40p. [LINK

Gailus, J. (2010) A Grizzly Challenge: Ensuring a Future for Alberta’s Threatened Grizzlies. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 39p. [LINK]   

Gailus, J. (2000) Bringing Conservation Home: Caring for Land, Economies and Communities in Western Canada. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 40p. [LINK

Graumlich, L., and W. L. Francis, editors. (2010) Moving Toward Climate Change Adaptation: The Promise of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative for Addressing the Region’s Vulnerabilities. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 87p. [LINK

Haber, J., and P. Nelson. (2015) Planning for Connectivity: A guide to connecting and conserving wildlife within and beyond America’s national forests. Prepared for The Center for Large Landscape Conservation, Defenders of Wildlife, Wildlands Network and Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 24p. [LINK

Haufler, J.B., and C.A. Mehl. (2002) Development of Trans-boundary Ecoregions for the Yellowstone to Yukon Planning Area. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 31p. [LINK

Huijser, M.P., and J.S. Begley. (2016) Wildlife Mitigation Opportunities Along U.S. Highway 2, Northwestern Montana. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 85p. [LINK]  

Lamb, C., Ford, A., McLellan, B.N., Proctor, M.F., Mowat, G., Ciarniello, L., Nielsen, S.E., and Boutin, S. (2020) The ecology of human–carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences July 2020, 117 (30) 17876-17883.

Lausen, C. (2014) Bat Inventory of Flathead River Valley, SW BC. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. October 2014. 13p. [LINK]   

Kociolek, A.V., and A.P. Clevenger. (2011) Effects of Paved Roads on Birds. Technical Report No. 8, Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 29p. [LINK

Mahr, M. (1999) Y2Y Aquatics Strategy Workshop. August 1999. 39p. [LINK]  

Mahr, M., and K. Jones. (2005) Bird Biodiversity in the Flathead River Basin. Technical Report No. 5, Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. May 2005. 19p. [LINK]   

Mahr, M., and M. Mauro. (2003) Making Science, Making Change: Celebrating Five Years of Research and Collaboration in the Yellowstone to Yukon Region. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. May 2003. 95p. [LINK

Mayhood, D.W. (2007) Fishes of the Yellowstone to Yukon Region. Technical Report No. 3, Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. Dec. 14, 2007. 37p. [LINK]  

Merrill, T. (2005) Grizzly Bear Conservation in the Yellowstone to Yukon Region. Technical Report No. 6, Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 41p. [LINK

Merrill, T. (Undated) Assessing the Effectiveness of Umbrella Species: A brief instruction manual for objective evaluation of the adequacy of umbrella effect. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 25p. [LINK

Merrill, T., D.J. Mattson and C.A. Frissell. (2008) Life history, reserve design and umbrella effects: grizzly bears and aquatic systems in western Montana. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 36p. [LINK

Muir, J. E. (2004) Identification of Prime Avian Habitat in the Y2Y Ecoregion. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. April 2004. 12p. [LINK]  

Muir, J. E. (2004) Bird Conservation Area Design for the Yellowstone to Yukon Ecoregion. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. August 2004. 14p. [LINK

Muir, J. E. (2003) Predicted Avian Habitat Quality in Y2Y. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. April 2003. 5p. [LINK]    

Nowak, K, Berger, J, Panikowski, A., et al. Using community photography to investigate phenology: A case study of coat molt in the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) with missing dataEcol Evol. 2020; 00: 1– 12.

Pojar, J. (2010) A New Climate for Conservation: Nature, Carbon and Climate Change in British Columbia. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. January 2010. 99p. [LINK

Proctor, M., C. Servheen, W. Kasworm, and T. Randandt. (2008) Highway 3 Linkage Report. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. March 2008. 34p. [LINK

Weaver, J.L. (2006) Big Animals and Small Parks: Implications of Wildlife Distribution and Movements for Expansion of Nahanni National Park Reserve. Conservation Report No. 1. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. 100p. [LINK

Weaver, J.L. (2017) Bighorn Backcountry of Alberta: Protecting Vulnerable Wildlife and Precious Waters. Wildlife Conservation Society Canada Conservation Report No. 10. 141 p. [LINK

Westwood, A. R., et al. (2017) Strong Foundations: Recap and Recommendations from Scientists Regarding the Federal Environmental and Regulatory Reviews. August 2017. 24p. [LINK] – [Executive summary

Westwood, A. R., et al. (2018) Protecting biodiversity in British Columbia: Recommendations for an endangered species law in B.C. from a species at risk expert panel. Report prepared for the B.C. Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy. 27p, [LINK

Wilcox, L., B. Robinson and A. Harvey. (1998) A Sense of Place: Issues, Attitudes and Resources in the Yellowstone to Yukon Ecoregion. Prepared for Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. April 1998. 138p. [LINK]   

Williams, Jeremy and G. Q. Bull. (2019) The report, Exploring Emerging Economic Opportunities in the Columbia River Headwaters Region of British Columbia. Prepared for the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. November 2019. 28p. [LINK]

Yellowstone to Yukon: A Blueprint for Wildlife Conservation. (2003) 25p. [Link

Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative (2012) Muskwa-Kechika Management Area Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Assessment. Prepared for Muskwa-Kechika Management Area Advisory Board. 113p. [Full Report] - [Summary

Header photo: Tristan Brand